Physical optics calculation software typically provides a single solving program for Maxwell’s equations. Field solvers like finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) or finite element method (FEM) enable the modeling and design of specific micro- and nano-optics structures but, because of their high numerical effort, which tends to scale up with the size of the system, are not by themselves a realistic approach to system modeling. But ray tracing is not enough to calculate the point spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) in a lens system. To compensate, ray-tracing software developers may include physical optics notions in their model-building programs. In this way, the central technology applied throughout the ray-tracing software addresses the connection between ray and physical optics at the exit pupil of an optical system model. Developments in modern optics and photonics have increased the demand for a more thorough inclusion of physical optics in systems modeling. One such example of a demanding system is AR/MR glasses, which include micro- and nano-optics, partially coherent sources, or a combination of all of these.